Speaking skills





Speaking: Productive skill


Speaking involves using speech to express meanings to other people.


Key concepts

-Develop learner’s speaking skills by focusing regularly on particular aspects of speaking.

Particular aspects of speaking

- fluency
- pronunciation,
- grammatical accuracy
- body language
- vocabulary
- functions (a way of describing language use, a reason why to communicate)
- appropriacy.

Speaking activities


-Controlled practice activities– focus on accuracy, not on
communication, interaction (using language and body language) or fluency

-Less controlled practice activities – to practice communication, interaction and fluency.

Preparing for speaking practice

-Practice of necessary vocabulary
-Time to organize their idea what they want to say, practice in pronouncing news words and expressions.


Lead-in

Is an introduction to the topic, focusing on the new language

Practice activities or tasks

Students have opportunities to use the new language

 
Post-task activities

Students discuss the topic freely and or ask the teacher questions about the language used.


Lexis

-Lexis is individual words or set of words, e.g. vocabulary items, that have specific meaning

Key Concepts


Knowing a word means knowing all its different kinds of meaning.

Knowing a word involves understanding its form, e.g.

- what part of speech it is,
- how it works grammatically,
- how it is pronounced and spelt.

Vocabulary Items 


- Denotation (the meaning)
- Synonyms (words with the same or similar meaning)
- Antonyms / opposites (words with opposite meaning)


- Lexical sets (group of words that belong to the same topic areas)


- Compound words (two or more words together that have meaning as a set) bookshop, telephone number clear-headed

- Collocation (words that often occur together) e.g. to take a holiday, heavy rain, clear skin, a clear day.

- Prefixes + based word (unclear)
- Based word + Suffixes (clearly )


Functional Approach


A functional approach to teach language helps teachers find real-world contexts in which to present and practice grammar, and helps learners to see the real-world uses of the grammar they learn

Combining functions and grammar helps to give grammar a meaning for learners and helps them to learn functions with grammatical structures that they can then use in other contexts