Speaking skills

Speaking: Productive skill

Speaking involves using speech to express meanings to other people.

Key concepts

-Develop learner’s speaking skills by focusing regularly on particular aspects of speaking.

Particular aspects of speaking

- fluency
- pronunciation,
- grammatical accuracy
- body language
- vocabulary
- functions (a way of describing language use, a reason why to communicate)
- appropriacy.

Speaking activities

-Controlled practice activities– focus on accuracy, not on
communication, interaction (using language and body language) or fluency

-Less controlled practice activities – to practice communication, interaction and fluency.

Preparing for speaking practice

-Practice of necessary vocabulary
-Time to organize their idea what they want to say, practice in pronouncing news words and expressions.


Is an introduction to the topic, focusing on the new language

Practice activities or tasks

Students have opportunities to use the new language

Post-task activities

Students discuss the topic freely and or ask the teacher questions about the language used.


-Lexis is individual words or set of words, e.g. vocabulary items, that have specific meaning

Key Concepts

Knowing a word means knowing all its different kinds of meaning.

Knowing a word involves understanding its form, e.g.

- what part of speech it is,
- how it works grammatically,
- how it is pronounced and spelt.

Vocabulary Items 

- Denotation (the meaning)
- Synonyms (words with the same or similar meaning)
- Antonyms / opposites (words with opposite meaning)

- Lexical sets (group of words that belong to the same topic areas)

- Compound words (two or more words together that have meaning as a set) bookshop, telephone number clear-headed

- Collocation (words that often occur together) e.g. to take a holiday, heavy rain, clear skin, a clear day.

- Prefixes + based word (unclear)
- Based word + Suffixes (clearly )

Functional Approach

A functional approach to teach language helps teachers find real-world contexts in which to present and practice grammar, and helps learners to see the real-world uses of the grammar they learn

Combining functions and grammar helps to give grammar a meaning for learners and helps them to learn functions with grammatical structures that they can then use in other contexts