Text typologies – Creation and difficulties

Text  typologies  – Creation  and  difficulties

Text typologies is concerned with the identification of the criteria leading to the classification (typology) of texts (or text types, text classes, styles, genres). Depending on the criteria adopted, there are several possibilities of classifying texts:

Spoken - Written
Dialogical - Monological
Spontaneus - Ritual
Informal - Formal
Individual - Interindividual
Private - Public
Subjective - Objective
Interactional - Transactional

Functional Classification:
The functional classification identifies illocutionary text types according to the type of the dominating illocutionary act:

- Representative or assertive type(research reports, weather forecasts, diaries, CVs, lectures)
- Directive type ( orders, instructions, directions, giving advice)
- Expressive type (apologies, thank-you notes, greetings)
- Commissive type ( pledges, swears, offers, vows, bets)
- Declarative or performative type (nominations, appointments, dismissals, accussations)

Situational Classification:
 The situational classification sorts out texts according to the ´sphere of activity´ (private, official or public, such as a private letter, a letter addressed to an institution) and ´form of communication´ (dialogical and monological, spoken and written texts). 

Strategic Classification: 
The strategic classification deals primarily with the topic and the ways of its expansion:

- Narrative
- Descriptive
- Argumentative

 Speech events of the same type are identified as belonging to particular genres.

- Schemes 
- Discourse structures
- Macro-structures
- Rhetorical structures.



In the last unit I can put in context every topic studied during the semester. We have to analyze a text and clasified its words according to the definitions that we have learnt. Text typologies helped me to rehersed the units and to be aware about what the couse was about.