Constitutives principles of text:
Cohesion: The function of syntax. The surface text in active storage. Closely-knit patterns: phrase, clause, and sentence. Augmented transition networks. Grammatical dependencies. Rules as procedures. Micro-states and macro-states. Hold stack. Re-using patterns: recurrence; partial recurrence; parallelism; paraphrase. Compacting patterns: pro-forms; anaphora and cataphora; ellipsis; trade-off between compactness and clarity. Signalling relations: tense and aspect; updating; junction: conjunction, disjunction, contrajunction, and subordination; modality. Functional sentence perspective. Intonation.
Coherence: Meaning versus sense. Non-determinacy, ambiguity, and polyvalence. Continuity of senses. Textual worlds. Concepts and relations. Strength of linkage: determinate, typical, and accidental knowledge. Decomposition. Procedural semantics. Activation. Chunks and global patterns. Spreading activation. Episodic and semantic memory. Economy. Frames, schemas, plans, and scripts. Inheritance. Primary and secondary concepts. Operators. Building a text-world model. Inferencing. The world-knowledge correlate. Reference.
Intentionality: Reduced cohesion. Reduced coherence. The notion of intention across the disciplines. Speech act theory. Performatives. Grice’s conversational maxims: cooperation, quantity, quality, relation, and manner. The notions of action and discourse action. Plans and goals. Scripts. Interactive planning. Monitoring and mediation.
Acceptability: Judging sentences. Relationships between acceptability and grammaticality. Acceptance of plans and goals.
Informativivity: Attention. Information theory. The Markov chain. Statistical versus contextual probability. Three orders of informativity. Triviality, defaults, and preferences. Upgrading and downgrading. Discontinuities and discrepancies. Motivation search. Directionality. Strength of linkage. Removal and restoration of stability. Classifying expectations: the real world; facts and beliefs; normal ordering strategies; the organization of language; surface formatting; text types; immediate context. Negation. Definiteness. A newspaper article and a sonnet. Expectations on multiple levels. Motivations of non-expectedness.
Situationality: Situation models. Mediation and evidence. Monitoring versus managing. Dominances. Noticing. Normal ordering strategies. Frequency. Salience. Negotiation. Exophora. Managing. Plans and scripts. Planboxes and planbox escalation. A trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness. Strategies for monitoring and managing a situation.
Intertextuality: Text types versus linguistic typology. Functional definitions: descriptive, narrative, and argumentative texts; literary and poetic texts; scientific and didactic texts. Using and referring to well-known texts. The organization of conversation. Problems and variables. Monitoring and managing. Reichman’s coherence relations. Discourse-world models. Recalling textual content. Effects of the schema. Trace abstraction, construction, and reconstruction. Inferencing and spreading activation. Mental imagery and scenes. Interactions between text-presented knowledge and stored world-knowledge. Textuality in recall experiments.
Regulative principles of a text
Efficiency: Text used to communicate with a minimum expenditure of effort by the participants.
Effectiveness: Text creating favourable conditions for attaining the Sender’s goal
Appropiateness: Suitability of the Text to the communicative situation in which it is used.
In this unit I go deep in what is a text, and in which elements a piece of writting needs to be a real text. Personally I think that this is one of the most important topics of the subject. If I would learn it before, my writtings could be better nowadays. The relation between the constitutive principles of text is very interesting because it helps me to understand better and faster a text and recognize those elements in a text.