Coherence and Cohesion

Coherence and Cohesion


Coherence means the connection of ideas at the idea level, and cohesion means the connection of ideas at the sentence level. Basically, coherence refers to the “rhetorical” aspects of your writing, which include developing and supporting your argument (e.g. thesis statement development), synthesizing and integrating readings, organizing and clarifying ideas.

The cohesion of writing focuses on the “grammatical” aspects of writing. Cohesion is also a very important aspect of academic writing, because it immediately affects the tone of your writing. But cohesive writing does not mean just “grammatically correct” sentences; cohesive writing refers to the connection of your ideas both at the sentence level and at the paragraph level. 

              a) personal references
              b) demonstrative references
              c) comparative references
              d) anaphoric references
              e) cataphoric references
              f) exophoric references

              a) verbal substitution
              b) nominal substitution

Ellipsis : Sets up a relationship that is not semantic but lexicogrammatical. Ellipses are substitution with zero.
              a) nominal ellipsis
              b) verbal ellipsis
              c) clausal ellipsis

             a) additive conjunction
             b) adversative conjunction
             c) causal conjunction
Lexical cohesion:
             a) reiteration
             b) synonym



 Reference is very important to avoid repetition in a text. Learning those type of word and how to use it in a text helped me to improve my writtings. The different types of references seems to be difficult to use in a text but with the appropiate and accurate usage every person could learn how to use them.